|Abstract:||Electromagnetic interference can degrade civil Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and services, and in some cases result in integrity failures. The aviation community is well-aware of such threats due to the proliferation of interfering-capable equipment including personal electronic devices (PEDs), personal privacy devices (PPDs), GNSS repeaters, mis-operated test equipment, low-cost software-defined radio cards, and the foreseeable proliferation of more sophisticated spoofing devices in the future. Protection against such interference is under consideration for the next-generation of avionics standards. This paper is intended to support the definition of new avionics standards that address these interference threats. First, it provides a current review of the technical literature with a focus on aviation. Then, the paper compiles the existing nomenclature, taking into account definitions from regulatory bodies. Next, the paper identifies categories of threat emissions. Later, the assets to protect and use case under analysis are presented, followed by a discussion of detection and mitigation responses. The paper continues with a list of detection and mitigation actions that can be implemented at different stages of the avionics receiver. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on possible treatment of specific threat categories in the next generation of standards. This paper is intended to provide a framework for discussing standards, recommended practices, and test procedures for the treatment of emissions that may be encountered by future equipment. Common nomenclature and threat categorization of jamming and spoofing threats was not available prior to this effort. The framework is the result of several months of iterations including research institutes, GNSS providers, and air navigation service providers. This work provides a common framework that can be used for threat modeling and quantitative risk analysis to enable development of future requirements and associated test procedures in the next generation of aviation standards.|
Proceedings of the 2019 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation
January 28 - 31, 2019
Hyatt Regency Reston
|Pages:||389 - 407|
|Cite this article:||
Fernández-Hernández, Ignacio, Walter, Todd, Alexander, Ken, Clark, Barbara, Châtre, Eric, Hegarty, Chris, Appel, Manuel, Meurer, Michael, "Increasing International Civil Aviation Resilience: A Proposal for Nomenclature, Categorization and Treatment of New Interference Threats," Proceedings of the 2019 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Reston, Virginia, January 2019, pp. 389-407.
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