A. W. Merz

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Evasive maneuvers are determined for each of two potentially colliding ships, such that their miss distance is maximized. These maneuvers are frequently contrary to the established rules of the road. It is assumed that the ship speeds are constant during the encounter, and that the turn-rates of the ships are bounded between symmetrical limits, corresponding to hard right and hard left turns. The optimal turn directions are found to be explicit functions of the range, bearing and heading between the two ships. The cooperative case, when both ships maneuver, and the non-cooperative case, when only one ship maneuvers, are both analyzed. Examples of the optimal maneuvers for two identical ships are presented in detail.
Published in: NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 20, Number 2
Pages: 144 - 152
Cite this article: Merz, A. W., "OPTIMAL EVASIVE MANEUVERS IN MARITIME COLLISION AVOIDANCE", NAVIGATION: Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 20, No. 2, Summer 1973, pp. 144-152.
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