Performance Characterization of the BeiDou-3 Constellation

Rebecca Wang and Todd Walter

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: The recent progress of the BeiDou satellite constellation requires a better understanding of its performance for future incorporation and improvement of the performance of various augmentation systems. These systems, including Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM), Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS), and Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS), all require a characterization of anomalous events and faulted behaviors for each constellation. Because the increase of constellations in service allow for more stringent evaluations of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) performance which are required for the improvement of these augmentation systems, multi-GNSS constellation monitoring should be performed continuously. The addition of new constellations such as Galileo and BeiDou enhances the performance capabilities of multi-GNSS services, and, in addition to the GPS constellation, performance characterization of its constellation and associated faults should be analyzed. There is extensive past research on the faults of GPS and Galileo. However, each constellation maintains certain integrity metrics and other infrastructural design characteristics unique to the provider. Furthermore, the GPS and Galileo constellations publish notice advisory to Navstar users (NANU) and notice advisory to Galileo users (NAGU), respectively, on the signal status of satellites in the constellations due to prescheduled maintenance or unexpected events; however, there is no such public message service for the BeiDou constellation as of yet. We adapt our tools characterizing the performance of other multi-GNSS systems to also characterize the performance of the BeiDou constellation. In this paper, we provide nominal statistics on the performance of the BeiDou constellation, specifically, the BeiDou-3 medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Furthermore, we provide a comparison of the analyzation period to the same for GPS and Galileo. Additionally, we provide a discussion of messaging differences between BeiDou and previously existing GNSS constellations to aid the process for determining nominal statistics and other extensions of the BeiDou constellation in the future.
Published in: Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting
April 15 - 18, 2024
Hilton Waikiki Beach
Honolulu, Hawaii
Pages: 81 - 93
Cite this article: Wang, Rebecca, Walter, Todd, "Performance Characterization of the BeiDou-3 Constellation," Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, April 2024, pp. 81-93. https://doi.org/10.33012/2024.19669
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