A Study on Sequential Relative Navigation of Unmanned Space Vehicle Under Proximity Mission Environment

Dayea Kim, Byungjin Lee, Junghyun Kim, and Sangkyung Sung

Abstract: Research on proximity rendezvous and docking is actively being conducted to perform various missions, including orbit adjustments, malfunction repairs, and replenishing consumables such as fuel. Because space vehicles that exist in low orbit fly very fast, precise estimation of relative positions and relative velocities is requisite. In this paper, we assume that two unmanned spacecraft are orbiting the same path while maintaining approximately 10 meters. We perform relative navigation using GPS to estimate relative position, relative velocity, relative receiver clock bias, and drift. We utilize simulated data for GPS pseudorange and Doppler measurements. We also use the pseudorange and Doppler difference between the target and Chaser as measurement inputs. Additionally, accurately calculating the attitude from very close operating distances of 5 meters or less up to the final docking decision point is crucial. Therefore, we propose a camera model based on dual quaternions representing translational and rotational motion. We attach an LED marker on the Target, which receives GNSS absolute navigation information, and we assume that the camera on the Chaser is fixed on this LED marker, allowing us to establish the geometric relationship between the camera and the LED. Since the Chaser does not receive absolute navigation information, we use the 2D pixel information of the LED attached to the Target as measurements. The state variables used in the camera model consist of the positions, attitudes, accelerations, and angular velocity bias errors of both the Chaser and the Target. The proposed dual quaternion-based camera model in this study can improve attitude estimation performance in proximity rendezvous and docking situations.
Published in: Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting
April 15 - 18, 2024
Hilton Waikiki Beach
Honolulu, Hawaii
Pages: 808 - 819
Cite this article: Kim, Dayea, Lee, Byungjin, Kim, Junghyun, Sung, Sangkyung, "A Study on Sequential Relative Navigation of Unmanned Space Vehicle Under Proximity Mission Environment," Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, April 2024, pp. 808-819. https://doi.org/10.33012/2024.19649
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