Revisiting Combinatorial Watermarking Under SCER Adversarial Models

Jason Anderson, Sherman Lo, and Todd Walter

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Combinatorial Watermarking Signal Authentication can help establish trust in a GNSS signals. In Combinatorial Watermarking, the GNSS provider elects to invert a subset of spreading code chips secretly and then later distribute those perturbations to receivers. The receivers can use statistics of the signal to make determinations of the signal authenticity. Previous work demonstrated how to design a Combinatorial Watermarking scheme and derive the distributions of receiver statistics to ensure small probabilities of missed detection and false alarm under assuming an adversary does not attempt to estimate the watermarked chips and replay. In this work, we extend the analysis of Combinatorial Watermarking to adversaries capable of engaging in Security Code Estimation and Replay (“SCER”) attacks. We derive the distributions of our statistics under these models and assemble a collection of statistics needed to defend against SCER-capable adversaries. Provided a bound on the estimation capability of the SCER-capable adversary, one can use this work to design a Combinatorial Watermarking scheme that meets security requirements.
Published in: Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting
April 15 - 18, 2024
Hilton Waikiki Beach
Honolulu, Hawaii
Pages: 732 - 744
Cite this article: Anderson, Jason, Lo, Sherman, Walter, Todd, "Revisiting Combinatorial Watermarking Under SCER Adversarial Models," Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, April 2024, pp. 732-744. https://doi.org/10.33012/2024.19633
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