Stochastic Modeling of the Radiation Pattern of an Airborne Single-Band GNSS Antenna

El-Mehdi Djelloul, Alexandre Chabory, Christophe Morlaas, and Rémi Douvenot

Abstract: Airborne antennas play a critical role in aircraft systems, serving as channels for signals entering and exiting the aircraft. As their presence continues to grow, ensuring electromagnetic compatibility and optimal performance across various environments becomes increasingly imperative. However, traditional methods of characterizing these antennas through measurements or simulations encounter challenges due to logistical constraints and computational limitations. To address these issues, this paper proposes a theoretical approach to characterize the stochastic radiation pattern of an airborne L1 GNSS patch antenna. This approach considers randomness in both the antenna parameters and the aircraft geometry. Invoking a two-step methodology involving Vector Spherical Harmonics (VSH) and Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansions, the paper establishes a framework to analyze the spatial distribution and stochastic nature of the radiated electric field. The PC expansion provides easy and efficient computing of statistics such as mean, variance, and sensitivity indices, outperforming classical Monte Carlo schemes. Applying this methodology to the airborne L1 GNSS patch antenna results in a stochastic radiation pattern, with identified boundaries encapsulating most field realizations with high confidence. Simplified aircraft geometry, reduced to the fuselage, enhances computational tractability in the L1 GNSS patch antenna case. By offering a systematic approach to characterizing airborne antenna radiation patterns, this paper contributes to bypassing systematic measurement or simulation for each aircraft-antenna pair.
Published in: Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting
April 15 - 18, 2024
Hilton Waikiki Beach
Honolulu, Hawaii
Pages: 699 - 708
Cite this article: Djelloul, El-Mehdi, Chabory, Alexandre, Morlaas, Christophe, Douvenot, Rémi, "Stochastic Modeling of the Radiation Pattern of an Airborne Single-Band GNSS Antenna," Proceedings of the ION 2024 Pacific PNT Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, April 2024, pp. 699-708.
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