Circularly Periodic Progressive Multi-Band High Impedance Surface Integrated with a Wideband Spiral Antenna for GNSS Applications

Kshitij Lele and Chris Bartone

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: A unidirectional circularly periodic progressive multi-band High Impedance Surface (HIS) is designed and integrated with a wideband spiral antenna to enhance performance in GNSS bands. The proposed GNSS progressive multi-band HIS consists of two distinct frequency bands. The first band is designed to cover GNSS applications in the 1.1 GHZ to 1.6 GHz region including GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, BeiDou (BDS), QZSS, and NavIC. The second frequency band is designed to cover GNSS applications in the 2.4-2.5 GHz band, such as NavIC at 2.49 GHz, for ranging and WiFi functionality in NavIC, and QZSS and BDS, respectively. A design methodology includes a multi-band HIS that involves aligning the 0° phase response of the HIS rings at the center of each GNSS frequency while also ensuring spatial alignment of HIS rings with a circumference that corresponds to the wavelength of the design GNSS center frequency. This design procedure is verified in simulations using a concentric circular waveguide that is excited by a cylindrical wave and measuring the S11 phase response at the surface of the HIS. In order to demonstrate the performance of the GNSS progressive multi-band HIS design it is integrated with a wideband spiral antenna that is placed at a distance of 0.16? from the HIS. The spiral antenna is designed to have a lower cutoff frequency of 1 GHz in order to cover all frequency bands. This GNSS progressive multi-band HIS is then enclosed in an absorber-filled aluminum cavity to further reduce back and side lobe radiation. The full antenna structure is shown to have good performance characteristics in terms of S11 return loss, radiation patterns and gain in the designed GNSS frequency bands.
Published in: Proceedings of the 2024 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation
January 23 - 25, 2024
Hyatt Regency Long Beach
Long Beach, California
Pages: 987 - 997
Cite this article: Lele, Kshitij, Bartone, Chris, "Circularly Periodic Progressive Multi-Band High Impedance Surface Integrated with a Wideband Spiral Antenna for GNSS Applications," Proceedings of the 2024 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, California, January 2024, pp. 987-997. https://doi.org/10.33012/2024.19552
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