Initial Study on Spoofing Detection Using IMU and GNSS Compass

Takeshi Komori, Nobuaki Kubo

Abstract: GNSS, widely used in various fields including autonomous driving, is a precise tool for positioning and navigation. However, its susceptibility to jamming and spoofing has become a significant concern over the last decade. In urban environments, where urban canyons can degrade GNSS positioning accuracy, reliability becomes a challenge. Integration with other sensor is an effective approach to detect spoofing [Chiara, Francesco, Tomasin, 2022] [Curran Broumendan, 2017] . Alert Limit is essential to judge spoofing position (Birendra, Samer, & Pervan, 2020). If we can know speed and moving direction of vehicle, we can do dead-reckoning and mitigate effect of spoofing (Enric & Alexander, 2023) [Fukuda, Hatta, Guo, Kubo, 2021]. This study introduces a method to detect false positions, utilizing a GNSS compass and IMU for consistent direction and course maintenance. The GNSS compass determines the heading between two antennas via real-time kinematic calculations. Meanwhile, the gyro sensor in the inertial measurement unit measures angular rate, aiding in heading calculation. Though the heading from the GNSS compass is noisy over short periods, it is precise over longer spans. The gyro sensor's angular rate has minimal noise but includes some bias, leading to gradual error accumulation. In open-sky areas with perfect GNSS reception, we use a complementary filter to couple the GNSS compass with the gyro sensor, allowing for gyro sensor bias estimation in vehicles where zero velocity update technique is inapplicable. This combination yields a more precise and accurate heading. Even in scenarios where GNSS signals are blocked, and GNSS compass heading is unavailable, our method maintains heading accuracy within 25° (95.5% confidence) for an hour and half. Additionally, incorporating a magnetic sensor enhances heading accuracy to within 25° (95.5% confidence). Based on our experimental results, we established an alert limit for movement direction error as an example.
Published in: Proceedings of the 2024 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation
January 23 - 25, 2024
Hyatt Regency Long Beach
Long Beach, California
Pages: 1117 - 1128
Cite this article: Komori, Takeshi, Kubo, Nobuaki, "Initial Study on Spoofing Detection Using IMU and GNSS Compass," Proceedings of the 2024 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, California, January 2024, pp. 1117-1128.
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