Single-Station-Based Positioning System as an Alternative Navigation for Operations Near UAM Vertiports

Sunhwan Gwon, Pilkyo Jeong, Minhuck Park, Changdon Kee, O-Jong Kim

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Future air mobility refers to the next generation of air transportation systems, encompassing concepts such as Urban Air Mobility (UAM) and Regional Air Mobility (RAM). UAM, a 3D air transport system integrating ground and air transport in urban areas, aims to move people or goods over city skies. Ensuring safe operations, particularly stability at vertical takeoff and landing sites, known as vertiports, is crucial. In environments prone to jamming attacks rendering Global Positioning System (GPS) ineffective, an alternative navigation system is necessary. Legacy systems like VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR) and Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) cannot provide performance at a level suitable for future air transportation (Eldredge et al., 2010; Lo et al., 2010). The single-station-based positioning system, an alternative navigation system presented for aviation users, enables 3D positioning with one station using an antenna array. Because positioning comes from a single station, it has inherent bad Dilution of Precisions (DOPs), requiring precise carrier phase measurements of receiving signals and a strategy for integer cycle ambiguity resolution. Its performance improves as users approach the station, making it suitable for approach and landing guidance. The study proposes a single-station-based positioning system for approach, landing and take-off near UAM vertiports, including new designs for instantaneous ambiguity resolution. Analyses were conducted on its positioning accuracy and cycle ambiguity resolution performance. DOP-based analysis and Monte-Carlo simulations with measurement error modeling were performed, highlighting the importance of the cycle ambiguity resolution process. However, difficulties exist when users hover stationary or have symmetrical trajectories in 3D space. If discontinuous signal broadcasting is considered, instantaneous cycle ambiguity resolution is essential. To improve performance, this study proposes increasing dynamic characteristics within the antenna array by physically rotating it. Simulation results show instantaneous cycle ambiguity resolutions are achieved with this method.
Published in: Proceedings of the 2024 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation
January 23 - 25, 2024
Hyatt Regency Long Beach
Long Beach, California
Pages: 637 - 650
Cite this article: Gwon, Sunhwan, Jeong, Pilkyo, Park, Minhuck, Kee, Changdon, Kim, O-Jong, "Single-Station-Based Positioning System as an Alternative Navigation for Operations Near UAM Vertiports," Proceedings of the 2024 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Long Beach, California, January 2024, pp. 637-650. https://doi.org/10.33012/2024.19520
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