Tightly Coupled Graph Neural Network and Kalman Filter for Smartphone Positioning

Adyasha Mohanty, Grace Gao

Abstract: GNSS-based smartphone positioning is crucial for a wide array of applications, including navigation, emergency response, augmented and virtual reality. Despite significant advancements, constraints on size, weight, power consumption, and cost still pose challenges, leading to degraded accuracy in challenging urban settings. To improve smartphone positioning accuracy, we introduce a novel framework that deeply couples a Graph Neural Network (GNN) with a learnable Backpropagation Kalman Filter (BKF). This hybrid approach combines the strengths of both model-based and data-driven methods, enhancing adaptability in complex urban settings. We further augment the GNN’s measurement modeling capabilities with extended features, a novel edge creation technique, and an inductive graph learning framework. Additionally, we implement a unique backpropagation strategy that uses real-time positioning corrections to refine the performance of both the GNN and the learned Kalman filter. We validate our algorithm on real-world datasets collected using smartphone receivers in urban environments and demonstrate improved performance over existing model-based and learning-based approaches.
Published in: Proceedings of the 36th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2023)
September 11 - 15, 2023
Hyatt Regency Denver
Denver, Colorado
Pages: 175 - 187
Cite this article: Mohanty, Adyasha, Gao, Grace, "Tightly Coupled Graph Neural Network and Kalman Filter for Smartphone Positioning," Proceedings of the 36th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2023), Denver, Colorado, September 2023, pp. 175-187. https://doi.org/10.33012/2023.19300
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