Passive Single Satellite Geolocation of Ground-Based EMI Sources

Dan Shen, Genshe Chen, Khanh Pham

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Satellite communications are facing increasingly diverse physical and electromagnetic interference (EMI) that transmit radio frequency (RF) signals in X/Ku/K/Ka/Q-bands. Geolocation of the interfering source is an essential step in mitigating or eliminating the interference and restoring the operation of the communications service. RF emitter detection and localization is a key enabler for reliable space control, space situational awareness, intelligence surveillance, and reconnaissance, as well as satellite communications together with positioning, navigation, and timing. A key challenge is to obtain accurate 3-D spacebased geolocation of ground-based EMI sources using a single satellite. Due to the limited power on a satellite and the usual clustering environments of EMI sources, passive geolocation is more feasible than active geolocation. This paper proposes a rapid and passive single-satellite-based 3D meter-level geolocation of ground EMI sources, which interfere with the uplinks of satellite communication (SATCOM) systems. In this paper, we focused on a rapid and passive Doppler based constrained unscented Kalman filters (cUKFs) for single-satellite-geolocation of ground EMI sources, which interfere with the uplinks of SATCOM systems. cUKF is a balanced choice between the geolocation performance and the computational costs. Specifically, we (i) design and implement Doppler and Doppler rate-based constrained unscented Kalman filters (cUKFs); (ii) design and implement a cross-correlation based blind Doppler estimation algorithms to compute the Doppler information from the received jamming signals without a priori information about the jamming waveforms; (iii) develop recursive constrained posterior Cramér-Rao bound (rcPCRB) for the nonlinear filtering problems; and (iv) conduct numerical simulations of these modules and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed passive single satellite geolocation (SSG) solution on a practical scenario with one satellite and one ground-based EMI source.
Published in: Proceedings of the 36th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2023)
September 11 - 15, 2023
Hyatt Regency Denver
Denver, Colorado
Pages: 2384 - 2394
Cite this article: Shen, Dan, Chen, Genshe, Pham, Khanh, "Passive Single Satellite Geolocation of Ground-Based EMI Sources," Proceedings of the 36th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2023), Denver, Colorado, September 2023, pp. 2384-2394. https://doi.org/10.33012/2023.19236
Full Paper: ION Members/Non-Members: 1 Download Credit
Sign In