Doppler Processing for Satellite Navigation

Frank van Graas

Abstract: Abstract— Doppler processing was the principle of operation for the first satellite navigation system, Transit, that became operational in 1964 and was phased-out in 1996 [1]. Its successor, the Global Positioning System (GPS) uses the principle of one-way ranging, which requires fewer satellites for a position solution compared to Doppler processing [2]. In recent years, Doppler processing has been revisited for several applications, including precise velocity [3]; positioning with low earth orbit (LEO) satellites using carrier Doppler shift only [4]; combining signal-of-opportunity Doppler measurements from multiple LEO satellite constellations [5]; and solutions combining both pseudorange and Doppler measurements [6]. This paper summarizes different Doppler processing techniques, performance as a function of geometry and error sources, and provides results for several examples ranging from computer models to actual observations from static and dynamic users. Keywords—satellite navigation, Doppler, one-way ranging
Published in: 2023 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS)
April 24 - 27, 2023
Hyatt Regency Hotel
Monterey, CA
Pages: 365 - 371
Cite this article: van Graas, Frank, "Doppler Processing for Satellite Navigation," 2023 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), Monterey, CA, April 2023, pp. 365-371.
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