Spoofing-Resilient LiDAR-GPS Factor Graph Localization with Chimera Authentication

Adam Dai, Tara Mina, Ashwin Kanhere, Grace Gao

Abstract: Abstract—Many vehicle platforms typically use sensors such as LiDAR or camera for locally-referenced navigation with GPS for globally-referenced navigation. However, due to the unencrypted nature of GPS signals, all civilian users are vulnerable to spoofing attacks, where a malicious spoofer broadcasts fabricated signals and causes the user to track a false position fix. To protect against such GPS spoofing attacks, ChipsMessage Robust Authentication (Chimera) has been developed and will be tested on the Navigation Technology Satellite 3 (NTS3) satellite being launched later this year. However, Chimera authentication is not continuously available and may not provide sufficient protection for vehicles which rely on more frequent GPS measurements. In this paper, we propose a factor graph-based state estimation framework which integrates LiDAR and GPS while simultaneously detecting and mitigating spoofing attacks experienced between consecutive Chimera authentications. Our proposed framework combines GPS pseudorange measurements with LiDAR odometry to provide a robust navigation solution. A chi-squared detector, based on pseudorange residuals, is used to detect and mitigate any potential GPS spoofing attacks. We evaluate our method using real-world LiDAR data from the KITTI dataset and simulated GPS measurements, both nominal and with spoofing. Across multiple trajectories and Monte Carlo runs, our method consistently achieves position errors under 5 m during nominal conditions, and successfully bounds positioning error to within odometry drift levels during spoofed conditions. Index Terms—GPS, spoofing, LiDAR, sensor fusion, Chimera, factor graphs
Published in: 2023 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS)
April 24 - 27, 2023
Hyatt Regency Hotel
Monterey, CA
Pages: 470 - 480
Cite this article: Dai, Adam, Mina, Tara, Kanhere, Ashwin, Gao, Grace, "Spoofing-Resilient LiDAR-GPS Factor Graph Localization with Chimera Authentication," 2023 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), Monterey, CA, April 2023, pp. 470-480. https://doi.org/10.1109/PLANS53410.2023.10139945
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