3D LiDAR Aided GNSS Real-time Kinematic Positioning via Coarse-to-fine Batch Optimization for High Accuracy Mapping in Dense Urban Canyons

Xikun Liu, Weisong Wen, Li-Ta Hsu

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) real-time kinematic (RTK) has shown centimeter-level absolute positioning results in open-sky areas. However, it is also known to suffer from polluted GNSS measurements and poor satellite geometry in urban canyons, because of the non-line-of-sight and multipath reception caused by the signal blockage and reflection. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors, along with LiDAR/inertial measurement unit (IMU) odometry systems, can provide precise environment description and short-term accurate relative positioning capability, which could be utilized for aiding GNSS-RTK to obtain better performance. The recently developed 3D LiDAR-aided GNSS-RTK positioning methods detected the GNSS NLOS receptions via the incrementally built map and improve the satellite geometry using the low-lying virtual satellite from LiDAR features. However, the high-elevation angle NLOS receptions cannot be fully detected and the multipath signals cannot be effectively mitigated. To fill this gap, this paper proposes a 3D LiDAR aided GNSS-RTK positioning method via iterated coarse to fine batch optimization by (1) Global 3D point cloud map aided NLOS exclusion which enables the detection of high-elevation angle NLOS receptions. (2) Iterated batch optimization based on a innovatively devised tightly-coupled factor graph which fully exploits the global consistency among the constraints of LiDAR, IMU and GNSS-RTK to exclude the potential multipath signals. Our proposed method aims to achieve lifelong accurate positioning performance in deeply urbanized areas. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been proved by the evaluation conducted on our open-source challenging dataset, UrbanNav, which contains various sequences collected by automobile-level low-cost GNSS receivers in urban canyons of Hong Kong.
Published in: Proceedings of the 35th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2022)
September 19 - 23, 2022
Hyatt Regency Denver
Denver, Colorado
Pages: 1954 - 1965
Cite this article: Liu, Xikun, Wen, Weisong, Hsu, Li-Ta, "3D LiDAR Aided GNSS Real-time Kinematic Positioning via Coarse-to-fine Batch Optimization for High Accuracy Mapping in Dense Urban Canyons," Proceedings of the 35th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2022), Denver, Colorado, September 2022, pp. 1954-1965. https://doi.org/10.33012/2022.18545
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