A GNSS Jamming/Spoofing Test Suite for Smart Tachograph Applications

L. Cucchi, J. Fortuny, G. Baldini, I. Fernandez-Hernandez, B. Martinez, G. Vecchione

Abstract: It is well known that radio frequency interference (RFI) poses a threat to civil Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This is particularly true in case of liability critical application in which the PVT information is directly related to legal and economic aspects. In the European Union (EU), the Smart Tachograph (ST), formerly known as Digital Tachograph, represents a typical example of liability-critical application in the road transportation domain. The ST is a good example of a regulated application in which GNSS plays a key role: the Position, Velocity and Timing (PVT) information is used by the Onboard Unit (OBU) in commercial vehicles above 3.5 tons (in goods transport) and carrying more than 9 persons including the driver (in passenger transport) in order to record the driving and resting time of drivers. In this context, PVT information is used by law enforcers to verify the compliance to the regulation ([Fig.1]). Hence, the risk of malicious actions aimed at tampering with the GNSS receiver or altering the PVT information, is high. A typology of the jamming and spoofing events in road applications has been defined, in order to create a test suite with the scenarios that are representative and of concern for the ST. The main goal of our activity is the development of a test suite aimed at supporting the adoption of the new EU Smart Tachograph regulatory framework; this means to support GNSS receiver manufacturers, ST manufacturers and ST integrators by sharing a reference test battery useful to assess the receiver robustness against jamming and spoofing within a harmonized context. The need to address the specific automotive scenario conditions and the requirements of the regulation has led to the development of an ad-hoc test suite. In particular, the test battery aims at simulating specific automotive dynamic and environment conditions with a wide range of jamming and spoofing events, including intentional and unintentional RFI events. In particular, 11 test cases have been developed and include three jamming, two repeaters and six spoofing scenarios: the RFI signals are superimposed on a baseline scenario, describing the ST trajectory and simulating nominal GPS and Galileo constellations. It is worth mentioning that the test battery fully supports the new Galileo OSNMA service as required by the regulation. Most of test cases last 20 minutes, while only one test case needs a longer simulation (i.e. 60 minutes). The same sampling frequency (i.e. 10 Msps) is used for all the test cases, while the bit depth varies from 8 to 16 bits depending on the presence of the jamming. The paper shows the laboratory set-up and the presents a detailed description of each test case. Moreover, some relevant results observed in the GNSS receivers under test are included even though this is not the main objective of the activity. The test campaign is still under preparation and in this phase, the main goal is to verify the proper design and implementation of the simulated scenarios. Once it is completed, the RFI sampled files and related detailed description will be shared among ST communities and any interested users.
Published in: Proceedings of the 33rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2020)
September 21 - 25, 2020
Pages: 1490 - 1514
Cite this article: Cucchi, L., Fortuny, J., Baldini, G., Fernandez-Hernandez, I., Martinez, B., Vecchione, G., "A GNSS Jamming/Spoofing Test Suite for Smart Tachograph Applications," Proceedings of the 33rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2020), September 2020, pp. 1490-1514. https://doi.org/10.33012/2020.17759
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