Precise Localization Technology of Mobile Phone on a Vehicle in Tunnel using LTE Signal Based Surface Correlation

Beomju Shin, Sanghoon Jeon, Jungho Lee, Changdon Kee, and T. Lee

Abstract: The car navigation service has opened through the global positioning system (GPS). People's lives have changed through car navigation services, and this service is indispensable nowadays. GPS provides reliable location accuracy in open space, but its location accuracy is degraded where multipath and other error factors are present. In particular, since GPS signals must be received in order to calculate the position, the navigation system cannot calculate the position in an indoor space such as underground parking lot, subway or tunnel where GPS signals are cut off. When car navigation is performed in an indoor parking lot where GPS signals are not transmitted, the user cannot calculate the current location, so the user has to go out by relying on the traffic sign because he does not know the current location. Also, when the user leave the parking lot, the car navigation system has problems. In an urban canyon, it is difficult to calculate accurate current position due to multipath. Because the route is calculated through the current location and route, the car navigation system provides the wrong route to the user. In addition, when entering a tunnel while using car navigation, the car navigation system calculates the position using the initial tunnel entry velocity estimated by the GPS. As the speed of the user increases or decreases, the position error also increases. Then the position suddenly changes when passing through the tunnel. And it is difficult to provide a proper guidance at the branch road or exit in the tunnel because of the positioning error. People are demanding a complete car navigation service, but the current navigation service provides the wrong route and position information to the user where the GPS signal quality is poor. In order to solve the above problem, in this paper, we have studied to improve the user's position accuracy by using LTE signal and mobile phone internal sensor. In general, observed time difference of arrival (OTDOA) technique is applied for the LTE based positioning. Because this method gives tens of meters of error, it is difficult to be used for the car navigation service. In our research, we estimate the position using the LTE signal strength. The difference from conventional fingerprinting method is that instead of using only current signal strength, the signal strength pattern accumulated while moving is utilized to estimate the user position. The signal strength increases as the user approach the access point (AP), and decreases as the user move away from the AP. Therefore, when a user moves and stores signal strength with respect to a specific AP, a pattern that could occur only in the corresponding region is saved. There are many similar candidates in the database when using only the current signal strength. However, when using a pattern, similar candidates exist only around the true position. And, when using several LTE signals, the positioning accuracy could be increased. Since the user receives multiple LTE signals, the pattern becomes surface. The surface is compared with the database, and the position with the highest correlation value is estimated as the current position. We call this method surface correlation (SC). In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, experiments were conducted in the Gangnam beltway tunnel in Seoul. The testbed consisted of three tunnel and total distance is almost 11.8 Km. In the tunnel, repeater and several antennas are installed to widen the area of the LTE signal. When an LTE signal is received by the vehicle, the largest signal strength is received every time when the vehicle passes the nearest antenna. As a result, for a specific LTE signal, when the vehicle has passed through the LTE signal region, a unique pattern with multiple peaks is generated. In order to estimate the position, we first estimate the position with the SC technique. Then, the estimated position is corrected by comparing the peak of the currently received pattern with the peak of the database. Through this method, the position was estimated with an error of less than 50meter in the tunnel. Conclusion In this research, the LTE signal strength based positioning technology is presented. Especially, this technology, SC, provides the positioning performance that could be used for the car navigation in the tunnel where GPS signal is blocked. We expected that user would be use the accurate car navigation service through this technology in the GPS challenging environment.
Published in: Proceedings of the 31st International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2018)
September 24 - 28, 2018
Hyatt Regency Miami
Miami, Florida
Pages: 190 - 222
Cite this article: Shin, Beomju, Jeon, Sanghoon, Lee, Jungho, Kee, Changdon, Lee, T., "Precise Localization Technology of Mobile Phone on a Vehicle in Tunnel using LTE Signal Based Surface Correlation," Proceedings of the 31st International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2018), Miami, Florida, September 2018, pp. 190-222. https://doi.org/10.33012/2018.16119
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