Title: Coordination of GNSS Signals with LiDAR for Reflectometry
Author(s): Roohollah Parvizi, James Henry, Norikazu Honda, Erik Donarski, Boris S. Pervan and Seebany Datta-Barua
Published in: Proceedings of the 30th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2017)
September 25 - 29, 2017
Oregon Convention Center
Portland, Oregon
Pages: 3420 - 3433
Cite this article: Parvizi, Roohollah, Henry, James, Honda, Norikazu, Donarski, Erik, Pervan, Boris S., Datta-Barua, Seebany, "Coordination of GNSS Signals with LiDAR for Reflectometry," Proceedings of the 30th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2017), Portland, Oregon, September 2017, pp. 3420-3433.
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Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of a controlled GNSS reflectometry experiment to measure the power scattered from the surface and coordinate the power scatter with the surface from which it reflected by use of a collocated lidar and reference GNSS receiver. The ground-based mobile sensor suite we have developed consists of: a reflected-GNSS antenna and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) front end, a second (direct) GNSS reference antenna and USRP, lidar, and supporting power and electronics. A temporary reflecting pool 1 m in diameter is positioned at the anticipated specular reflection point on the ground. Data are post-processed to acquire GPS L1 signals, estimate the sensor suite, satellite, and specular reflection point positions. We map the lidar point cloud with the specular point positions, and compare the surface sites with the scattered power distribution in the form of a delay Doppler map (DDM). Due to an unanticipated delay in data collection, the field campaign occurs after the specular point has moved off the water surface to surrounding grass. So, as anticipated, the DDM of the reflected signal is produced and shows significant scatter but no signature of reflection from water. Though a DDM from grass rather than water is the most likely result, the experiment is a successful end-to-end test of the data collection and post-processing methods. DDMs generated from the directly received signal correctly show power concentrated at the code chip and Doppler frequency of the acquired satellite, indicated the processing is sound. The sensor suite and processing will be used in future data campaigns for detecting seasonal freshwater and surface ice variations.