Title: Application of GPS to Enable Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Heliocentric Disposal
Author(s): Evan J. Anzalone, T. Emerson Oliver
Published in: Proceedings of the 30th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2017)
September 25 - 29, 2017
Oregon Convention Center
Portland, Oregon
Pages: 1722 - 1734
Cite this article: Anzalone, Evan J., Oliver, T. Emerson, "Application of GPS to Enable Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Heliocentric Disposal," Proceedings of the 30th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2017), Portland, Oregon, September 2017, pp. 1722-1734.
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Abstract: To properly dispose of the upper stage of the Space Launch System, the vehicle must perform a burn in Earth orbit to perform a close flyby of the Lunar surface to gain adequate energy to enter into heliocentric space. This architecture was selected to meet NASA requirements to limit orbital debris in the Earth-Moon system. The choice of a flyby for heliocentric disposal was driven by mission and vehicle constraints. This paper describes the SLS mission for Exploration Mission -1, a high level overview of the Block 1 vehicle, and the various disposal options considered. The research focuses on this analysis in terms of the mission design and navigation problem, focusing on the vehicle-level requirements that enable a successful mission. An inertial-only system is shown to be insufficient for heliocentric flyby due to large inertial integration errors from launch through disposal manuever while on a trans-lunar trajectory. The various options for aiding the navigation system are presented and details are provided on the use of GPS to bound the state errors in orbit to improve the capability for stage disposal. The state estimation algorithm used is described as well as its capability in determination of the vehicle state at the start of the planned maneuver. This data, both dispersions on state and on errors, is then used to develop orbital targets to use for meeting the required Lunar flyby for entering onto a heliocentric trajectory. The effect of guidance and navigation errors on this capability is described as well as the identified constraints for achieving the disposal requirements. Additionally, discussion is provided on continued analysis and identification of system considerations that can drive the ability to integrate onto a vehicle intended for deep space.