Title: PPP Integrity for Advanced Applications, Including Field Trials with Galileo, Geodetic and Low-Cost Receivers, and a Preliminary Safety Analysis
Author(s): P. F. Navarro Madrid, L. Martínez Fernández, M. Alonso López, M.D. Laínez Samper, M.M. Romay Merino
Published in: Proceedings of the 29th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2016)
September 12 - 16, 2016
Oregon Convention Center
Portland, Oregon
Pages: 3332 - 3354
Cite this article: Madrid, P. F. Navarro, Fernández, L. Martínez, López, M. Alonso, Samper, M.D. Laínez, Merino, M.M. Romay, "PPP Integrity for Advanced Applications, Including Field Trials with Galileo, Geodetic and Low-Cost Receivers, and a Preliminary Safety Analysis," Proceedings of the 29th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2016), Portland, Oregon, September 2016, pp. 3332-3354.
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Abstract: Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a consolidated high precision positioning technique providing centimetre-level error. PPP processes dual-frequency pseudorange and carrier-phase measurements from a single user receiver, using detailed physical models and precise GNSS orbit & clock products calculated beforehand, but it can also work with single-frequency receivers, significantly enhancing the receiver PVT solutions, in either the double and in the single frequency cases. PPP provides absolute positioning as opposed to relative techniques such as RTK (Real Time Kinematics). PPP can be applied to both post-processing and real-time applications, provided that real-time input orbit and clock data are available. In the last years, we have been working in developing an integrity layer to be added to the PPP positioning solution, necessary for the provision of certain critical applications. One of the main features of this integrity approach is that it combines in a well-balanced way, information from the system and information from the user, in order to build optimum horizontal and vertical protection levels. Besides this, and tightly related to the final application, additional sources of information for complementing the integrity information can be considered, such as consistency checks with non-GNSS measurements, for example. Previous work showed the excellent bounding capabilities of the KIPL algorithm for PPP integrity/reliability computation, considering three different scenarios: static, kinematic and convergence. Analyses have been extended based on the new magicPPP capability to simulate real time processing in post-processing mode. Additional tests have been carried out, including: • Extend static testing, covering a several months long time period • Double Frequency (DF, geodetic) and Single Frequency (SF, low cost) kinematic PPP testing, for covering a wide range of markets and applications. • Dedicated experimentation for analysing different convergence periods, both in the double and single frequency contexts • Multi-constellation testing, including Galileo PPP integrity/reliability performances will be provided for the different testing conditions, in terms of protection level magnitude, and percentage of integrity failures for different integrity risk levels. The field trials will be complemented with a preliminary safety analysis, aimed at: • Detecting potential weaknesses in the current PPP integrity algorithm approach, to be overcome with future enhancements of the KIPL design and/or implementation. • Being the first step towards a potential certification process, which could grant the use of the PPP integrity bounds for a wide range of high precision services and applications.