Title: GNSS Receivers Jamming Resilience in the Close to the Shore Navigation Scenario
Author(s): Lukasz Bonenberg, Oeystein Glomsvoll
Published in: Proceedings of the 29th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2016)
September 12 - 16, 2016
Oregon Convention Center
Portland, Oregon
Pages: 3433 - 3460
Cite this article: Bonenberg, Lukasz, Glomsvoll, Oeystein, "GNSS Receivers Jamming Resilience in the Close to the Shore Navigation Scenario," Proceedings of the 29th International Technical Meeting of The Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2016), Portland, Oregon, September 2016, pp. 3433-3460.
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Abstract: Around 90% of trade and good are transported by sea. In the same time, navigational error accounts for half of the accidents and serious incidents worldwide. These errors have increased significantly since the introduction of GPS and ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System) on most ships (1995-2002). While there is no direct evidence, previous research [1,2] has suggested that navigators’ over-reliance on GPS could be a cause. Norwegian Coastal Administration provides a network of 12 Differential GPS (DGPS) stations along the coast to support navigation in dangerously narrow fjords, prone to a rapid weather changes. Any disruption to this service or GPS in general, will also affect the AIS service as it relies on GPS to provide both the position and the synchronisation time. With commercial jammers are available online for less than a hundred dollars [3], it is a very realistic security and safety threat. In the previous research [4] authors demonstrated, in live trials, that in the most common L1 jamming scenario the use of multi constellations offers better jamming resilience than the use of multiple frequencies. Results demonstrate known correlation between GPS L1 and L2 frequency, and possibility of over-dependence on GPS for signal acquisition, meaning that no signal can be received without GPS L1 signal being present. This paper describes a further research with the aim to understand the ability of the modern GNSS front ends to mitigate GPS L1 frequency based jamming, verify GPS over-dependence and to identify implication of those for the close to shore maritime navigation. The conducted consisted of laboratory and live trials, with the multiple modern GNSS front-ends tested. Former have been conduced using SPIRENT GSS9000 simulator and dedicated interference signal generator. Jamming simulation has been based on previously published trials [4] and included: * a continuous wave (CW) at 1575.42MHz (GPS L1 centre frequency) with varied spread and power; * a frequency modulated CW (MCW) swept over L1 and G1 frequencies. Results of the simulation have been verified by the life trials, conducted in the fjords in southern Norway and using GPS L1 frequency centred jammer. Initial results show that response to jamming is dependent on the front end type. The result, from laboratory and live trial, will be used to improve the understanding the jamming effect on the different vessels and GNSS solutions. This will be used in the further research, including large volume AIS pattern analysis. [1] Grant, A., Williams, P. and Basker, S. (2010): “GPS Jamming and its impact on maritime safety” in Port Technology International, vol. 46, pp. 39-41 [2] Boyes, H. A. (2013): “Maritime Cyber Security - Securing the Digital Seaways” (Sector Publications, 2013), Resilience, Security & Risk in Transport, Sector Publications, pp. 56-63, DOI: 10.1049/PERRSR3E_ch9 IET Digital Library [3] Mitch, R., Dougherty, R., Psiaki, M., Powell, S., O`Hanlon, B., Bhatti, J. and Humphreys, T. (2011): “Signal characteristics of Civil GPS Jammers” in Proceedings of ION GNSS 2011, pp. 20-23 [4] Oeystein Glomsvoll and Lukasz K Bonenberg (2016): "GNSS Jamming Resilience for Close to Shore Navigation in the Northern Sea", Journal of Navigation [5] P. Craven, R. Wong, N. Fedora, P. Crampton, (2013): "Studying the Effect of Interference on GNSS Signals" , Institute of NavigationInternational Technical Meeting 2013, (ITM 2013), San Diego, California, USA, 28 – 30 January 2013 [6] Borio, D.; O'Driscoll, C. and Fortuny, J., (2013): "Jammer impact on Galileo and GPS receivers," International Conference on Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS), 25-27 June 2013 pp. 1-,6, doi: 10.1109/ICL-GNSS.2013.6577265. [7] Erik Axell, Fredrik M. Eklöf, Peter Johansson, Mikael Alexandersson and Dennis M. Akos, (2015): "Jamming Detection in GNSS Receivers: Performance Evaluation of Field Trials", NAVIGATION : Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 62