Components for Batch-Fabricated Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks

M. H. Kwakernaak, S. Lipp, S. McBride, P. Zanzucchi, W.K. Chan, V.B. Khalfin, H. An, R. D. Whaley, Jr., B. I. Willner, A. Ulmer, J. Z. Li, T. Davis, A. M. Braun, J. H. Abeles, A. Post, Y-Y. Jau, N. N. Kuzma, W. Happer

Abstract: We describe chip-scale batch-fabricated cesium cells utilizing semiconductor wafer processing, pin transfer of cesium, and silicon/Pyrex anodic bonding for cell sealing. High-speed, single-mode linearly polarized VCSELs emitting at the 133Cs D1 line were fabricated, optimized for low threshold and high-speed operation with overall small power dissipation. Coherent population trapping (CPT) end-resonance signals with a contrast and linewidth of 5.4% and 7.1 kHz respectively are achieved using 1 mm optical path length cells and VCSEL driven with 1.25 mW RF modulation and 2.76 mW DC power dissipation. We demonstrate short-term stability of 4.5x10-10·t -1/2 with an atomic clock built with these components operating on the CPT end-resonance. The magnetic field is stabilized with a novel magnetic field locking scheme tapping the Zeeman resonance.
Published in: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting
December 7 - 9, 2004
Hyatt Regency Washington on Capitol Hill
Washington, D.C.
Pages: 355 - 368
Cite this article: Kwakernaak, M. H., Lipp, S., McBride, S., Zanzucchi, P., Chan, W.K., Khalfin, V.B., An, H., Whaley, R. D., Jr.,, Willner, B. I., Ulmer, A., Li, J. Z., Davis, T., Braun, A. M., Abeles, J. H., Post, A., Jau, Y-Y., Kuzma, N. N., Happer, W., "Components for Batch-Fabricated Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks," Proceedings of the 36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Systems and Applications Meeting, Washington, D.C., December 2004, pp. 355-368.
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