GNSS Integrity in the Arctic

Tyler G.R. Reid, Todd Walter, Juan Blanch, Per K. Enge

Abstract: Growing activity in the Arctic calls for high integrity navigation in this region. Since 1980, the summer Arctic sea ice has decreased by more than 50%. This now accessible Arctic Ocean has attracted many industries to the region such as oil and gas, fishing, and tourism. There is also the prospect of new shorter shipping routes, bypassing the Suez or Panama Canals in favor of the now open Arctic Ocean. This harsh environment and remote reaches necessitate the highest levels of safety both at sea and in the air. This secluded setting has limited infrastructure, lending itself to a space-based architecture for achieving navigation safety based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). GNSS integrity can be achieved via Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) as well as Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM). Here we examine both in the context of aviation and maritime navigation requirements. SBAS relies on ground-based and space-based infrastructure. ARAIM, planned for 2029, is more self-contained and will rely on the multitude of frequencies and core constellations coming in the future. Single frequency GPS-only SBAS is available today in North America, Europe, Japan, and India but falls short in the Arctic. By 2021, more systems are expected to come online, enabling service in Russia, South Korea, and China. It is 2026, which brings multifrequency and multi-constellation to SBAS, that holds the key to enabling service in the Arctic. The existing ground infrastructure was found to be sufficient, though the geostationary (GEO) space segment was not. GEOs have a coverage limit of 72o N, falling short in the Arctic. Here we propose the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) to deliver SBAS corrections to the Arctic. With such a link in place, SBAS can enable aircraft precision approach and even precise maritime operations such as mapping. ARAIM was also found able to support aircraft precision approach and autonomous ice navigation at sea, but falls short of the precision maritime requirements. Thus, depending on the application at hand, ARAIM or SBAS may present the better option, though both have their individual merits in the Arctic.
Published in: Proceedings of the 28th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2015)
September 14 - 18, 2015
Tampa Convention Center
Tampa, Florida
Pages: 1726 - 1740
Cite this article: Updated citation: Published in NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation
Full Paper: ION Members/Non-Members: 1 Download Credit
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