The Importance of Human Motion for Simulation Testing of GNSS

Kimon Voutsis, Paul D. Groves, Mark Holbrow, Colin Ford

Abstract: Human motion is generally considered benign to the performance of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and other positioning sensors. This study proves that this is not the case, even for typical human behaviour involving GNSS user equipment, e.g. in smartphones. Using recorded human motion, it is shown that phase-lock loops (PLLs) in GNSS receivers are sensitive to jerk dynamics induced by user motion, resulting in carrier cycle slips. To test the effects of human dynamics on GNSS carrier tracking, real human motion profiles were captured. These profiles comprised typical types of movements using a mobile phone, e.g. holding, answering and texting, different types of activities, e.g. walking or jogging, as well as different phone locations on the human body, e.g. in a hand, pocket, backpack and on an arm band. The data were captured outdoors using an Xsens MTi-G MEMS (Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) aided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with a 100Hz output rate. Then the captured motion (MoCap) was processed and input into a simulated PLL in Matlab with different tracking loop bandwidths (BL_CA) and carrier power-to-noise density ratios (C/N0). The results show that pedestrian gestures and type of activity, e.g. walking or jogging, affect the performance of the simulated PLL more adversely than the location of the phone on the human body. Also, to track pedestrian motion encompassing these gestures, activities and receiver locations, a minimum of 15Hz tracking bandwidth is required. Consequently, receiver manufacturers should exercise caution before reducing tracking bandwidths to compensate for the reduction in C/N0 resulting from GNSS antenna design, human body masking and the effects of buildings, trees and other environmental features. This paper also proposes and describes a pedestrian motion model (PMM) that simulates the GNSS antenna trajectory in 3D, when it is held by or attached to a pedestrian. The PMM will be validated using real MoCap scenarios and will enable Spirent to increase their product offering in the area of simulation-based testing of positioning sensors for pedestrian applications by generating human motion profiles which affect realistically the performance of GNSS user equipment.
Published in: Proceedings of the 27th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2014)
September 8 - 12, 2014
Tampa Convention Center
Tampa, Florida
Pages: 440 - 453
Cite this article: Voutsis, Kimon, Groves, Paul D., Holbrow, Mark, Ford, Colin, "The Importance of Human Motion for Simulation Testing of GNSS," Proceedings of the 27th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2014), Tampa, Florida, September 2014, pp. 440-453.
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