The Global Positioning System: a Boost to Space Users

Stanley C. Maki

Abstract: GPS is truly a gift of technology to space users. By analysis and simulation, GPS can be made applicable to the Space Transport Vehicle (STY) for GEO, Mars, and lunar return missions; to free-flying spacecraft such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Advanced Upper Stage (AUS) in the near-Earth orbits; to heavy lift launch vehicles of the Advanced Launch Systems (AI.S) family and Shuttle-C (cargo); to space observation platforms; and to future manned vehicles such as Shuttle II and the National AeroSpace Plane (NASP). GPS is almost a necessity for the STY. the best method for OMV and NASP, and of substantial economic benefit for nonrecoverable launch boosters. GPS can provide alternatives to other methods for achieving functions on space observation platforms. Certain unique requirements exist in space that do not arise with terrestrial and atmospheric users. These include: • Operation with fewer than four GPS satellites • Determination of attitude • Operation with long-range geometry • More severe weight, size, and power restrictions • Virtual absence of ionospheric and tropospheric effects • Single-Event Upset (SEU) phenomena • Widely ranging vehicle orientations • Rugged boost vibration. shock, and space temperature environments These requirements do not all occur for all space vehicles or missions. Trade studies and analyses have been performed to select the best methods for meeting these unique requirements for specific vehicles. For these space vehicles, GPS will be integrated with inertial navigation systems (where present) or with non-inertial attitude sensors. A variety of methods are available for integration consideration. These include: • Position/velocity, pseudorange/delta range, and code/carrier tracking interface • Separate and integrated. Kalman tilter • Open loop and closed loop Aspects of integration and selected approaches will be discussed for the space applications. Certain unique, nonstandard methods for integrating GPS with INS will be presented as to their configuration, performance. and advantages. Configuration diagrams. operational procedures. and performance parameters will be developed for the various space appli­cations.
Published in: Proceedings of the 2nd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 1989)
September 27 - 29, 1989
The Broadmoor Hotel
Colorado Spring, CO
Pages: 237 - 244
Cite this article: Maki, Stanley C., "The Global Positioning System: a Boost to Space Users," Proceedings of the 2nd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 1989), Colorado Spring, CO, September 1989, pp. 237-244.
Full Paper: ION Members/Non-Members: 1 Download Credit
Sign In