GPS Spoofing-Resilient Filtering Using Self-Contained Sensors and Chimera Signal Enhancement

Tara Mina, Ashwin Kanhere, Akshay Shetty, and Grace Gao

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: To protect civilian Global Positioning System (GPS) users from spoofing, the Air Force Research Lab has developed the chips-message robust authentication (Chimera) signal enhancement for the GPS L1C signal. With Chimera, standalone receivers that only have access to the GPS signal will be able to authenticate their received measurements once every 3 min, whereas users with access to an out-of-band source will be able to perform authentication once every 1.5 or 6 s. However, moving receivers typically rely on much faster real-time GPS update rates of 1–20 Hz. In this work, we design a spoofing-resilient filter framework that provides continuous and secure state estimation between Chimera authentication times. By leveraging self-contained sensors on-board the vehicle, such as an inertial measurement unit or wheel encoder, as well as the periodic Chimera authentication, our proposed filter determines how much to rely on the received unauthenticated GPS measurements for state estimation. In this respect, our filter relies more extensively on GPS measurements in order to improve real-time navigation performance and reduce localization errors when GPS signals are authentic, while successfully mitigating spoofing-induced errors during an experienced attack. We experimentally validate our proposed spoofing-resilient filter in a simulated test environment for a ground vehicle model with access to the 3-min Chimera channel, under various simulated spoofing attack scenarios. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first adaptive filter proposed for Chimera that continuously leverages real-time GPS measurements in a spoofing-resilient manner.
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