Surface Reflectivity Variations of Global Navigation Satellite System Signals From a Mixed Ice and Water Surface

Roohollah Parvizi, Shahrukh Khan, Alison F. Banwell, and Seebany Datta-Barua

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: This paper presents estimates of surface reflectivity (SR) over time of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals scattered from a partially frozen lake surface. A portable ground-based GNSS reflectometry sensor system that collects both scattered global positioning system L1 signals and independent validation data (lidar and camera) was deployed on the Lake Michigan waterfront in Chicago at a time when the lake surface was a mixture of ice and water. Lidar surface scans were merged with camera images and mapped, along with estimated reflection zones. For three satellites whose reflection points scan across ice and water over time, the relative SR and mean red intensity (differentiating ice from water) of camera pixels inside the first Fresnel zone were computed and shown to be correlated. This system concept will be used in the future for more complete mapping of phase changes of snow and ice in the cryosphere.
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