Characterization and Performance Assessment of BeiDou-2 and BeiDou-3 Satellite Group Delays

Oliver Montenbruck, Peter Steigenberger, Ningbo Wang, and André Hauschild

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Based on one year of data, a comprehensive assessment of broadcast group delays and differential code biases (DCBs) from network solutions is presented for all open BeiDou signals. Daily DCB estimates exhibit a precision of 0.1 ns, which also places a limit on long-term variations of the satellite group delays. On the other hand, the estimated DCBs show a notable dependence on the employed receivers, which causes inconsistencies at the few-nanosecond level between BeiDou-2 and BeiDou-3 satellites. Systematic satellite-specific offsets can likewise be identified in broadcast group delay values and clock offsets. These constitute the dominant contribution of the signal-in-space range error (SISRE) budget and are a limiting factor for single point positioning and timing. Use of the modernized B1C/B2a signals is therefore recommended instead of B1I/B3I. This offers a SISRE reduction from about 0.6 m to 0.45 m and also improves the consistency of precise clock and bias products derived from heterogeneous receiver networks.
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Published in: NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 69, Number 3
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