Walter I. Wittmann

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: "ICE IS OF DIRECT concern to the navigator because it restricts and sometimes controls his movements . . . "This statement is contained in the 1943 edition of the Hydrographic Office’s Americun Practical Navigator. Until the 1958-1959 accomplishments of the nuclear propelled submarines Nautilus and Skate, ice did indeed not only restrict surface and sub-surface ships from operating freely throughout .the Arctic Ocean, but it actually confined their operation, while under power, to marginal seas and to a narrow fringe area along the Arcticpack boundary.
Published in: NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 6, Number 7
Pages: 439 - 443
Cite this article: Wittmann, Walter I., "ICE AND SUBSURFACE NAVIGATION", NAVIGATION: Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 6, No. 7, 1959, pp. 439-443.
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