Lt. Cmdr. Robert Irving

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Teh subject of celestial observations by submarine periscope covers a broad field. Conventional periscopes have been used to make azimuth sights on the sun to check compass errors since World War I. Several multipurpose periscopes have been developed since World War II to provide our schnorkelling submarines and nuclear powered submarines with a submerged position fixing capability. This series of developments in the field of submerged navigation culminates in the highly accurate type Eleven periscope in the navigation system for teh Polaris submarine.
Published in: NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 7, Number 2&3
Pages: 140 - 144
Cite this article: Irving, Lt. Cmdr. Robert, "CELESTIAL SIGHTING THROUGH THE SUBMARINE PERISCOPE", NAVIGATION: Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 7, No. 2&3, 1960, pp. 140-144.
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