Franklin E. Kniskern

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: THIS PAPER DESCRIBES the routing of ships through the Arctic as well as the related sea ice observing and forecasting program at the Naval Oceanographic office. Since ship routing in the Arctic is complicat.ed by the presence of ice, much emphasis is placed on the ice forecasting program. Aerial ice reconnaissance is provided by Naval personnel attached to the Naval Oceanographic Office. Concentration, age, surface topography, location of leads and pools, and extent of fast ice are the features observed and forecasted. Forecasts consist of a long range outlook for the shipping season, 30-day forecasts, and 48-hour and 5-day short-range forecasts. The track provided the ship master stipulates the shortest safe route through ice congested areas to a rendezvous point with an icebreaker. The breaker t,hen escorts the ship to port through the thinnest and least ridged ice indicated by the ice forecasts.
Published in: NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 14, Number 1
Pages: 65 - 71
Cite this article: Kniskern, Franklin E., "ROUTING SHIPS THROUGH ICE INFESTED AREAS", NAVIGATION: Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 14, No. 1, Spring 1967, pp. 65-71.
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