CHANNEL NAVIGATION AND DOCKING OF SUPERTANKERS

Jack Kritz and Morton J. Howard

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: THE RAPID increased in the number of large crude-oil cargo carriers, or supertankers, has created serious problems in the navigation of coastal waters and the pilot’s performance of safe docking maneuvers. The economic motivations for the creation of supertankers and the forecasted increase in their sizes and numbers is reviewed. Navigation and maneuvering problems caused by their large masses and sizes, are analyzed. The net result of these problems in reducing the full potential of economic advantage, coupled with increased damage hazard, is outlined. The role of Sonar Doppler systems in reducing these problems is explored. The present state of the art and the techniques used are discussed. Early applications of marine Doppler systems in military vehicles are outlined, and analoiges to airborne Radar Doppler systems are drawn. The limitations of the ocean environment are shown to present certain restraints on expected performance. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of pulse and continuouswave systems is given. A complete description of a channel navigation and docking system now available to the marine industry is presented. The displays available to the watch officer are analyzed and shown. These displays provide him with information sufficient to reduce, significantly, the hazards in navigation and ship handling. Possibilities for expansion into automated ship control for the purpose of reducing human burden and effecting economies are discussed.
Published in: NAVIGATION, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 16, Number 1
Pages: 3 - 20
Cite this article: Kritz, Jack, Howard, Morton J., "CHANNEL NAVIGATION AND DOCKING OF SUPERTANKERS", NAVIGATION, Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1969, pp. 3-20.
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