J. A. Cestone and E. St. George, Jr.

Peer Reviewed

Abstract: Now that man has begun the exploration and exploitation of the hydrosphere, his need for navigation in the water environment becomes of primary importance. Navigation is the science and art of determining one's location in three dimensions with respect to a fixed reference, which may be inertial space or a terrestial benchmark. The extension of navigation into the hydrosphere is primarily a problem of sensing: most of the natural and man-made navigational references which are employed on the earth's surface and in space are not available below the water surface. Sunlight and voice communications can penetrate only a short distance, and artificial light only a few feet below the surface.
Published in: NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Volume 19, Number 3
Pages: 199 - 208
Cite this article: Cestone, J. A., St. George, E., Jr.,, "HYDROSPHERIC NAVIGATION", NAVIGATION: Journal of The Institute of Navigation, Vol. 19, No. 3, Fall 1972, pp. 199-208.
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