SLAM-based Pseudo-GNSS/INS Localization System for Indoor LiDAR Mobile Mapping Systems
Tamer Shamseldin, Ankit Manerikar, Magdy Elbahnasawy, and Ayman Habib, Purdue University
The emergence of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) has set a marked paradigm in the photogrammetric and mapping community that has not only facilitated comprehensive 3D mapping of different environments but has also paved way for new aspects of applied research in this direction. Out of the many essential blocks that make these MMS a viable tool for mapping, the positioning and orientation module is considered to be a crucial yet an expensive component. The integration of such a module with mapping sensors has allowed for the extensive implementation of such systems to provide high-quality maps. However, while such systems do not lack in system robustness and performance in general, the deployment of these systems is restricted to applications and environments where a consistent availability of GNSS signals is assured. Extending these MMS to GNSS-denied areas, such as indoor environments, is therefore quite challenging and necessitates the development of an alternative module that can act as a viable substitute to GNSS/INS for system operation without having to resort to an exhaustive modification of the same to function in GNSS-denied locations. In this research, such a case has been considered for the implementation of an indoor MMS using an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) and a 3D laser scanner for the task of generating high density maps of GNSS-denied indoor areas. To mitigate the absence of GNSS data, this paper proposes a Pseudo-GNSS/INS module integrated framework which utilizes probabilistic Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques to estimate the platform pose and heading from 3D laser scanner data. This proposed framework has been implemented based on three major notions: (i) using geometric methods for sparse point cloud extraction to carry out real-time SLAM, (ii) generating position data and geo-referencing signals from these real-time SLAM pose estimates, and (iii) carrying out the entire operation through use of a single 3D mapping sensor. The final geo-referenced point cloud can then be generated through post-processing by the Iterative Closest Projected Point (ICPP) registration technique which also diminishes the effect of sensor measurement noise. The implementation, performance and results of the proposed MMS framework for an indoor mapping system have been presented in this paper that demonstrate the ability of this Pseudo-GNSS/INS framework to operate flexibly in GNSS-denied areas.