Michael Felux, Benoit Figuet, Manuel Waltert, Patric Fol, Zurich University of Applied Sciences; Martin Strohmeier, Armasuisse; Xavier Olive, ONERA – DTIS, Université de Toulouse

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Global navigation satellite systems have enabled significant improvements in aeronautical navigation over the past decades. However, in recent years a growing number of radio frequency interference events been reported by flight crews rendering this technology temporarily unavailable in large areas. In this paper, we identify these radio frequency interference events and study the impact they have on civil aviation in Europe in more detail. In a first step, radio frequency interference occurrences are identified using crowd-sourced automatic dependent surveillance data collected in the period February to August 2022 for three different regions: the Baltic States and Poland, Eastern Europe bordering the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean. Then, we identify and implement detection schemes in order to assess the extent and duration of the impact of radio frequency interference on civil aviation. The analysis on the three areas of interest show different characteristics, from isolated events to regularly and recurrent disruptions, with up to thousands affected flights daily. We then go on and identify aircraft types affected by jamming and evaluate flight plan data with respect to aircraft navigation equipment in order to identify flights that rely solely on satellite navigation and might need radar assistance from air traffic control in case of a loss of satellite navigation. Finally, we touch on advanced mitigation strategies designed to ensure a safer use of the skies during radio frequency interference events.