Dong-Kyeong Lee, Nicholas Spens, Benon Gattis, Dennis Akos University of Colorado Boulder

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In the recent years, the threat of radio frequency interference (RFI) to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers has been increasing due to an escalating number of RFI related GNSS issues, and enhanced complexity of jammers and spoofers. This poses significant integrity threats to various systems that depend on GNSS measurements for navigation and guidance. One of the most versatile methods to detect such instances of spoofing is the use of Automatic Gain Control (AGC) measurements provided by GNSS receivers. AGC is indicative of the change in thermal noise levels observed by the frontend of the receiver, thus it can be used to detect presence of RFI. If AGC is coupled with the carrier to noise ratio density (??/????) values of visible GNSS satellites, it is possible to gain insight into which specific constellations or satellites may have been spoofed. Although AGC has been available in some commercial GNSS receivers and customized frontends for some time, the introduction of raw GNSS measurements in Android 7 has recently allowed it to be accessible in some smartphones as well. This study looks at AGC measurements from multiple smartphone models which have different GNSS chipsets, assesses their behavior under RFI, points out the current limitations, and proposes future improvements that would assist in its usage as a GNSS RFI indicator. Furthermore, the paper discusses the future of AGC measurements that would assist in broadening their applications to all GNSS receivers.