Shubhendra Vikram Singh Chauhan, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Grace Xingxin Gao, Stanford University

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Abstract:

The modern power grid will utilize Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to achieve wide-area situational awareness. PMUs use GPS signals for synchronizing measurements and are vulnerable under GPS Spoofing Attacks (GSAs). The corrupted PMU measurements under GSAs degrade the performance of the grid monitoring State Estimators (SEs). Experimental datasets containing both GPS and PMU measurements are essential to evaluate the performance of SEs under GSAs. Available datasets are GPS only and are not relevant to the power grid community. Due to the lack of datasets, researchers use low-fidelity simulations that simulate PMU measurements to evaluate the performance of SEs. In this work, we design a two-step methodology for generating GPS and PMU integrated datasets. In the first step, we modify a GPS simulator to generate GPS datasets under timing GSAs. In the second step, we conduct Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations with a virtual power grid consisting of Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), PMUs, and GPS clock. In HIL simulations, we transmit the generated GPS datasets to the virtual power grid and record PMU datasets. Finally, we validate the integrated datasets for different spoofing scenarios.