This article offers a new characterization of GNSS meaconing and its impact on GNSS receivers through mathematical models and simulations. First, general mathematical models of the received signal at a receiver’s correlators input and output in nominal conditions then in presence of a GNSS repeater are derivated. Then, the impact of a GNSS repeater is mathematically determined through simulations on a virtual GNSS receiver having various trajectories (static, pedestrian, car and airborne) for both realistic and degraded satellites and repeater configurations. In this article, the received meaconing power, code delay and phase shift are computed with reason to the authentic signal’s parameters. A 3D multipath error envelope is introduced to obtain maximal and minimal code delay estimation error according to multipath’s delay and Doppler difference. A model of the new C N0 cause by the meaconer is also given in this article. Simulations in nominal and degraded satellites configurations for various trajectories allow to emphasize the impact of the meaconer’s Doppler difference on the pseudorange and positioning errors. The impact of meaconing also is also proven to greatly depends on the GNSS receiver’s trajectory and velocity.