Weisong Wen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China

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Abstract:

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) positioning is an indispensable source of data for providing absolute positioning for autonomous driving vehicles (ADV). Satisfactory accuracy can be obtained in sparse areas. However, the performance of GNSS can be significantly degraded by signal reflections from buildings, causing multipath effects and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) receptions. State-of-the-art 3D mapping aided (3DMA) GNSS can significantly mitigate the effects of signal reflections caused by static buildings. However, this approach relies heavily on an initial guess of the GNSS receiver, and on the availability of 3D building models. Moreover, the NLOS reception caused by surrounding dynamic objects, such as double-decker buses, cannot be mitigated. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose a novel 3D LiDAR aided GNSS positioning method which makes use of an onboard 3D LiDAR sensor to detect and correct NLOS reception caused by both static buildings and dynamic objects. A novel sliding window map surrounding the ego-vehicle is first generated, based on real-time 3D point clouds from a 3D LiDAR sensor. Then, NLOS receptions are detected based on a real-time sliding window map using a proposed fast searching method. The proposed NLOS detection method does not rely on the initial guess of the GNSS receiver. Instead of directly excluding the detected NLOS satellites from further positioning estimation, the algorithm reported in this paper rectifies the pseudorange measurement model by (1) correcting the pseudorange measurements if the reflecting point of NLOS signals is detected inside the sliding window map, and (2) remodeling the uncertainty of the NLOS pseudorange measurement using a new weighting scheme. Finally, both the corrected and healthy pseudorange measurements are tightly integrated with an inertial navigation system (INS) using factor graph optimization (FGO). We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in two typical urban canyons in Hong Kong and found that improved accuracy is obtained even in such environments.