ION GNSS+ Short Courses - Taught by ION Masters

Monday’s short courses are provided on a complimentary basis to all paid ION GNSS+ attendees, with the compliments of the ION’s Satellite Division and the ION Master Instructors. ION Master Instructors are internationally recognized GNSS experts and educators. All of the ION Masters have generously donated their time and talents to this effort, as a service to the GNSS community, with the ION’s gratitude.

Short courses are presented lecture-style. Electronic course notes are the intellectual property of the ION Master Instructor, and are provided to registered attendees via the meeting website, at the discretion of the instructor.

Cost: Complimentary for registered ION GNSS+ attendees

Monday, September 16: 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m.
Masters Course GNSS 101: An Introduction
Dr. Pratap Misra
Masters Course Space Applications of GNSS
Dr. Penina Axelrad
Masters Course Signals of Opportunity Based Navigation
Dr. José A. del Peral-Rosado / Dr. Christian Gentner
Monday, September 16: 3:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.
Masters Course GNSS Jamming and Spoofing – LEO as Fallback
Dr. Todd E. Humphreys
Masters Course Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN) Systems
Dr. Li-Ta Hsu
Masters Course LEO PNT – Architectures and Performance Trades
Dr. Tyler Reid



Masters Course

GNSS 101: An Introduction

Date/Time: Monday, September 16, 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. MDT

An overview of the principles of satellite navigation and the requisite technologies that matured in the second-half of the 20th century leading to the development of Transit, which became operational in 1964, followed by GPS in 1995. The principal technologies required for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) are stable space platforms in predictable orbits, global coordinate frames, spread spectrum signals and ultra-stable clocks. These technologies made GNSS possible, but it’s the revolution in integrated circuits that led to a receiver chip, which adds about $1 to the cost of a smartphone and can determine, virtually instantaneously, your position within a couple of meters, velocity within 5 cm/s, and time within 50 ns. These innovations have transformed how we move about, transact commerce and fight wars.

Dr. Pratap MisraDr. Pratap Misra an ION Fellow and Kepler Award recipient, has been active in the GNSS field for 30 years, starting with a project at MIT Lincoln Laboratory aimed at combining measurements from GPS and GLONASS to improve navigation for civil aviation.




Masters Course

Space Applications of GNSS

Date/Time: Monday, September 16, 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. MDT

GNSS receivers have become standard equipment for near-earth satellites, providing the onboard position, velocity, and timing information required to support real-time operations. Furthermore, precise GNSS observations from both direct and indirect paths collected onboard these platforms are used to support scientific and commercial purposes including characterization of Earth’s atmosphere, measurement of ocean surface heights, and extraction of time varying features of Earth’s gravity field. New advances in receiver technology and detailed modeling of the environmental influences on GNSS satellites and signals continue to expand the utility of GNSS to ever finer orbit resolution, and higher altitude missions – even to the point of being planned to support lunar exploration missions. This short course will present an overview of the many applications of GNSS in space, and describe the unique challenges and requirements for its use in the space environment.

Dr. Penina Axelrad Dr. Penina Axelrad is Joseph T. Negler Professor of Aerospace Engineering Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder. Her research interests include technology and algorithms for position, navigation, timing, and remove sensing – especially in spaceborne applications. She is a past ION president, a Fellow of ION and AIAA, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.




Masters Course

Signals of Opportunity Based Navigation

Date/Time: Monday, September 16, 1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. MDT

Signals of Opportunity (SoO) refers to utilizing existing signals, such as radio, television, or cellular transmissions, for navigation or timing without requiring specialized transmitters. SoO can complement, or back-up, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) and other dedicated positioning systems to fulfil the challenging positioning performance requirements of innovative applications, such as high-accuracy indoor positioning, autonomous driving or Urban Air Mobility (UAM). This lecture provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals and principles of SoO-based navigation, leveraging cutting-edge technologies such as 5G networks. Through practical examples, including indoor positioning utilizing Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), we demonstrate the application and effectiveness of SoOs in navigation.

Dr. José A. del Peral-Rosado Dr. José A. del Peral-Rosado is a senior R&D navigation engineer within the Future Navigation Programs Department at Airbus Defense and Space GmbH. He authored seminal works on 4G/5G positioning performance and experimentation, and currently leading pioneering demonstrators and studies for 5G/6G positioning.


Dr. Christian Gentner Dr. Christian Gentner is working at the Institute of Communications and Navigation of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) where he directs the multimodal personal navigation group. His research focuses on sensor fusion, urban and indoor positioning.




Masters Course

GNSS Jamming and Spoofing – LEO as Fallback

Date/Time: Monday, September 16, 3:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. MDT

Intentional jamming and spoofing of GNSS signals is by now a widespread phenomenon. Especially common near conflict regions, but not limited to these, such interference erodes trust in GNSS and compromises safety in air and marine travel and shipping. This tutorial will examine: 1) patterns of GNSS interference across the globe; 2) its effects on GNSS receivers; and 3) techniques for its detection, source geolocation, and mitigation. The tutorial will highlight cooperative and non-cooperative use of signals from low-Earth-orbit (LEO) mega-constellations as an especially promising fallback strategy. Compared to traditional GNSS, LEO constellations offer higher power, wider bandwidth, more rapid multipath decorrelation, and the possibility of stronger authentication and zero-age-of-ephemeris, all of which will enable greater accuracy and greater resilience against jamming and spoofing.

Dr. Todd E. Humphreys Dr. Todd E. Humphreys holds the Ashley H. Priddy Centennial Professorship in Engineering in the department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at the University of Texas at Austin. He is director of the Wireless Networking and Communications Group and of the UT Radionavigation Laboratory, where he specializes in the application of optimal detection and estimation techniques to positioning, navigation, and timing. His awards include the UT Regents' Outstanding Teaching Award, the NSF CAREER Award, the ION Thurlow Award, the PECASE, and the ION Kepler award. He is Fellow of the ION and of the RIN. He holds a BS and MS from USU and PhD from Cornell.




Masters Course

Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN) Systems

Date/Time: Monday, September 16, 3:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. MDT

This course provides an overview of indoor positioning and indoor navigation (IPIN) systems. Starting from the markets and applications using IPIN, the course will introduce the popular technologies and related sensors. Single point positioning (SPP) will be introduced, followed by dead reckoning (DR). Regarding the data sources of SPP, we separate the sources into homogeneous (geometry-based) sources and heterogeneous (scene matching-based) sources. The former contain the measurement model of RSS-ranging, AOA, TOA, and TDOA; while the latter contains the fingerprint and other transformed data sources that are used to match with pre-surveyed databases. The popular DR using inertial, LiDAR, and visual sensors, namely PDR, LO, and VO, are also introduced. Finally, the pros and cons of different sensor fusion methods will be discussed.

Dr. Li-Ta Hsu Dr. Li-Ta Hsu, born in Taiwan, is currently an Associate Professor at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). Since 2023, he is a visiting research scientist at Google. He is an associate editor of NAVIGATION: Journal of the Institute of Navigation. His research interests are urban positioning and navigation for IoT and robotics applications.




Masters Course

LEO PNT – Architectures and Performance Trades

Date/Time: Monday, September 16, 3:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. MDT

Several emerging providers are targeting Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to deliver complementary and alternative position, navigation, and time (PNT) to meet the stringent requirements of certain applications. Here, we examine the system architectural elements, similarities and differences to medium Earth orbit (MEO) global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), and performance trades that result. The result is a system that takes a different form than the now familiar arrangement of around thirty satellites in MEO each with an atomic frequency standard as is the case with GNSS, as it is often driven by fundamentally different requirements. LEO-based satellite navigation has the potential to introduce new signals to complement existing GNSS in MEO to provide resilience, security, and high precision to navigation users.

Dr. Tyler Reid Dr. Tyler Reid is a co-founder and CTO of Xona Space Systems. Previously, Tyler worked as a research engineer at the Ford Motor Company in the localization and mapping group for self-driving cars. He has also worked as a software engineer at Google and as a lecturer at Stanford University, where he co-taught the GPS course. He is a recipient of the RTCA’s Jackson Award. Dr. Reid received his MSc and PhD in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Stanford University, where he worked in the GPS Research Lab.