Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring for Applications beyond Aviation
Javier Fidalgo, Enrique Domínguez, Ginés Moreno, Fulgencio Buendía, Joao Pedro Duque, Jorge Martínez, GMV; Merle Snijders, Heiko Engwerda, NLR; Olga Burdash, Armando Luciano, VVA; Ilaria Martini, Juan Pablo Boyero, EC; Ettore Canestri, Daniel Lopour, EUSPA; Santiago Perea, European Space Agency
Date/Time: Thursday, Sep. 22, 11:26 a.m.
The Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (ARAIM) is an evolution of the RAIM service and has been recently developed to protect multi-constellation users by means of robust user algorithms. The receiver in fact needs to take into account multiple faults, which become more likely in a multi-constellation and multiple frequencies scenario.
ARAIM includes an offline ground monitoring architecture, which provides updates on the nominal performance and fault rates of multiple constellations. This integrity data is contained in the Integrity Support Message (ISM) that is generated by an offline ground monitoring network and is provided to the airborne fleet through the GNSS signals. The ISM allows to monitor and update on a regular basis the performance information over the evolution of the constellation without requiring equipment changes. In this offline architecture, the ISM is not expected to be updated frequently.
The ARAIM concept was designed initially to serve the aviation community and civil aviation authorities. Although initially needed by the aviation community, the concept and message can be used by other communities. That is the main driver behind this paper. A wide range of applications, and specially safety critical applications, can in principle take advantage of this service, or a modified version of it, since they have similar and even more demanding requirements than aviation users. Rail, Maritime, Road, UAVs, LBS and Space User Sectors are analysed as potential target sectors in this work.
The work is performed in the frame of the ARAIMTOO (ARAIM for Applications Beyond the Aviation Sector) project, funded by the EC (European Commission) as part of the Horizon 2020 framework programme and aimed at studying the adaptation of the ARAIM concept to non-aviation applications. The project’s consortium is led by GMV with VVA and NLR as partners.
The purpose of this paper is to report the main outcomes of ARAIMTOO tasks. The main tasks performed within ARAIMTOO project are:
• Identification of non-aviation applications within different User Sectors, including Rail, Maritime, Road, LBS, UAVs and Space, with need of GNSS integrity capability and identification of their user needs in terms of GNSS Key Performance Indicators. Description of the Standardisation landscape of non-aviation applications, definition of integrity technical parameters.
• Identification of competing technologies with ARAIM, identification of added value of ARAIM and possible combinations with other innovative PNT concepts. Prioritization of most promising applications for ARAIM penetration taking into account different criteria as user equipment cost, benefits expected, a-priori feasibility to comply with the requirements, relevance of the applications, etc.
• Gap analysis to identify areas of improvement of ARAIM for the adaptation of this concept to non-aviation applications, covering Fault Tree Analysis, ARAIM user algorithm, ISM parameters and values, user error model, etc.
• Definition of ARAIM evolutions, this is, modifications to the original ARAIM algorithm to cover the identified gaps in order to adapt ARAIM concept to non-aviation users for a set of selected sectors.
• Proof-Of-Concept of the proposed ARAIM evolutions by a dedicated experimentation using SW implementations with the goal to analyse whether the non-aviation user requirements are met with the current ARAIM solution (version 4.0 of the Algorithm Description Document) from aviation sector and with the proposed ARAIM evolutions.
• Awareness and Dissemination activities in order to interact and gather feedback from non-aviation community, including end users and receiver manufacturers.
Three most promising User Sectors are selected to build the ARAIM evolutions, in particular, Rail, Maritime and UAVs have been considered as the most promising user sectors. As will be seen in the paper, ARAIM is a promising integrity technique which could provide an added value and meet the requirements of different non-aviation applications. The following high-level ARAIM evolutions have been investigated:
• For Rail User sector, the combination of SBAS with ARAIM, providing safety barriers against local effects plus hybridization with IMU/Odometer could allow to cope with the harsh environments and stringent integrity requirements typical of Rail Safety Of Life applications.
• For Maritime User Sector an ARAIM solution based on multiple antenna processing in combination with SBAS is investigated.
• For UAVs User Sector, the combination of PPP techniques with an integrity algorithm at user level as ARAIM plus the hybridization with IMU could allow to cope with harsh environments typical of urban areas and the stringent accuracy and integrity requirements of UAVs in urban environments.
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