Title: Challenges to Implementation of GNSS for Aviation Applications in African Continent
Author(s): Andrew O. Akala, Patricia H. Doherty, Charles S. Carrano, Larry L.N. Amaeshi
Published in: Proceedings of the 2009 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation
January 26 - 28, 2009
Disney's Paradise Pier Hotel
Anaheim, CA
Pages: 7 - 15
Cite this article: Akala, Andrew O., Doherty, Patricia H., Carrano, Charles S., Amaeshi, Larry L.N., "Challenges to Implementation of GNSS for Aviation Applications in African Continent," Proceedings of the 2009 International Technical Meeting of The Institute of Navigation, Anaheim, CA, January 2009, pp. 7-15.
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Abstract: This paper explores challenges that African Continent may encounter in course of implementation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for aviation applications, with the motive of establishing measures for successful system implementation. These challenges are discussed in parallel with their remedies under three broad categories: (1) Ionospheric effects: most African countries fall within equatorial/low latitude ionosphere where scintillation on GNSS signals is most intense due to high dynamics of ionospheric irregularities. Also, the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere over this region is usually high, consequently, susceptible to raging errors. To guarantee safety-critical implementation of GNSS infrastructure in Africa for now, and for all-inclusive validations of existing models, we point out the need to improve space research efforts in this region to the standard of Latin American and Southern Asia/Australian region. (2) Modernization and Standardization: In our survey, we inferred that complexities in operations, interfaces, and architecture of receivers are the common challenges that users are likely to encounter. Signal integrity may be at stake if a swift mechanism of prealerting receivers in case of satellite failure is not put in place. Colonial influence may tempt some African Countries to embrace European Galileo, while others may embrace American GPS-based GNSS technology. Hence, there is need to enforce unified standardization/certification procedure for interoperability. (3) On a final note, we addressed human factors: Training and acquaintance of aviators in this region with GPS facilities is inevitable. In the interest of safety, human factor assessment should be included to GPS-facilities certification. The message presented in this paper will be of immense support for implementation objective and for the overall safety and economic benefits in the aviation sector in Africa.